Biological markers or “biomarkers” are naturally occurring compounds which are released from damaged nerve cells in the brain and we been measured blood, urine or exhale breath. They reflect damage to cells and may eventually be diagnostic for concussion once absolute levels consistent with damage are determined.

  • Biomarkers are “a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention.”
  • Biomarkers are the measures used to perform a clinical assessment such as glucose or cholesterol levels and are used to monitor and predict health states in individuals or across populations so that appropriate therapeutic intervention can be planned.
  • Biomarker research in concussion includes the development of diagnostic assays, therapeutic indicators and clinical markers of treatment efficacy.
  • Biomarkers may be used alone or more likely in combination, to assess concussion in an individual.
  • Include:
    • Breath analysis
    • Urine analysis
    • Blood analysis

Here are a number of the bio markers currently undergoing evaluation as diagnostic measures for concussion.
Since a number of these bio markers are released following injury, there is also the possibility that they are the agents which actually cause damage and therefore open the potential for specific treatments which counter these bio markers and therefore prevent or treat damage.


Further research is being undertaken which show that chemical compounds which negate the effect of some of these bio markers may also protect the brain damage following injury.


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